What Is Fabric Shrinkage
Fabric shrinkage is used as a factor that determines the changes in length and width of fabric after washing it. The shrinkage of fabric is the same either you are washing it in a washing machine or dry cleaning.
The rate of shrinkage of fabric is the same in both cases. Fabric shrinkage is the major concerning point for the ready-made garment’s suppliers.
As fabric shrinkage after washing may affect the size of their garments. Item particulars of material and attire items have consistently profoundly affected the thinking and arranging of supervisors in every aspect of material and clothing creation.
In today's competitive markets where quality is normal at a low value, clothing organizations are requesting the low shrinkage from their providers to address the issues of the buyer.
The shrinkage is basically due to the use of unstable and low-quality material used in the fabric. If the material is not good it will undergo the shrinkage without dry clean the clothes.
Types Of Shrinkage
There are two types of shrinkage. One is called expansion and the other is called contraction. But in both types of shrinkage, the dimensional change is mandatory.
Either you are exposing the piece of cloth to water or heat. It is also not necessary that the fiber shrinks only once, the subsequent washing leads towards more shrinkage in most of the natural fibers.
The shrinkage of fabric is the decrease in the length and width of fabric after exposing the fiber to that of water, steam, or any chemical treatment.
The fabric shrinks in both length and width mostly the cotton fabrics, others shrink in only one dimension. This is due to the high tension which the fiber face during manufacturing.
How the fabric shrinks, as the extreme stretch in yarn during manufacturing makes its diameter high but when exposed to water the fibers of material shrink. The low-quality fabric has more stretch in yarn as compared to that of the high quality.
The low stretch causes less fabric shrinkage after washing. Residual shrinkage is the resultant shrinkage produced when tension is applied to the wet fabric. There are different material shrinkage rates that depend on the properties and composition of the material.
Shrinkage Of Natural And Synthetic Fibers
Natural fibers react differently to water as compared to that of the man-made fibers. Nylon and polyesters which are synthetic fibers shrink less than that of natural ones.
Structure and substance decide the sort and level of strands of fabric. Manufactured strands are progressively more stable because of their crystalline and thermoplastic nature.
They don't shrivel, while that of natural fabric material is progressively inclined to recoil in view of an increasingly undefined locale in their fiber structure which permits more retention of water, expanding of filaments, and expanded lubricity builds the contracting inclination.
Modal Fabric Shrinkage
Modal fabric is resistant to shrinking, unlike common fabric materials. It is made from the materials of the beech tree see image below. Modal fabric is fifty percent more resistant to shrinkage than that of cotton.
The modal fabric shrinkage can occur if it is treated severely during washing. This can also be due to its treatment with hard chemicals. Modal fabric can be prevented from shrinkage by washing it with regular detergent and using warm water.
Modal fabrics should be washed gently for five minutes. Shrinkage of modal fabric is not only limited to washing but after washing, effects may also impact the shrinkage fabric like ironing.
Some modular articles of clothing, contingent upon how they are woven and built, may wrinkle too much when washed and will require pressing. Utilize a medium-hot iron and constantly iron on an inappropriate side of the texture.
For additional assurance, utilize a squeezing material between the iron and the modular texture. Amazingly high temperatures when pressing can sear cellulosic filaments of fabric. The searing or yellowing happens as the fibers consume.
Rayon Fabric Shrinkage
Spun Rayon Fabric
Rayon fabric needs to be treated smoothly and gently during washing and ironing. Rayon fiber shrinkage can happen when it is treated hardly with chemicals.
Rayon fabric shrinkage occurs as it is washed in warm water or dried in the dryer. Wash the rayon fabric in normal water and regular detergent, this can prevent the shrinkage.
Each fabric has its own particular shrinkage percentage depending upon its manufacturing material.
Linen Fabric Shrinkage
Linen is one that dries quickly and is more comfortable and smoother to carry. Flax is a fiber that is used in the manufacturing of it which makes linen a good absorbent but more shrinkable.
linen fabric shrinkage occurs when it encounters water. It does not matter whether it is cold or hot water, it shrinks. So, Lukewarm water is more preferred when washing your smooth linen fabric.
Blended fabrics which are a mixture of two or more fabrics undergo less shrinkage as compared to the natural ones.
As they are more synthetic ones. Lyocell fabric undergoes shrinkage only on the first wash. Lyocell fabric shrinkage is much less as compared to that of other fabrics, only 3%.
Viscose Fabric Shrinkage
Viscose Polyester fabric
As, it is clear that every type of fabric shrinks there is a question in the mind of many people, does viscose shrinks like those of others. The viscose also shrinks like many other fibers on every wash.
The viscose fabric shrinkage is common as all of the other fabrics. You can, in any case, have any kind of effect in how your garments look and lessen contracting and extending by utilizing the correct clothing methods.
That being said, in practically all pieces of clothing there will be some shrinkage in fabric or extending because of the mileage of the texture.
Shrinkage or extending whenever is lingering, so even a little move in size after each time the article of clothing is tidied will include.
How to shrink viscose, can shrivel when you don't see the temperature, particularly at the primary wash, since plastic strands are utilized here, which contract at higher temperatures.
In the wake of being worn for quite a while, these plastic strands are wrecked and afterward, this doesn't happen anymore.
Viscose shrink differently from those of natural and synthetic ones as it is different from both of these. Flannel fabric shrinkage is more common than viscose.
How To shrink The Fabric
Shrinking the garments by putting them in the washing machine can be a powerful and modest strategy to scale down your garments.
In case you own a piece of clothing that is excessively enormous, you can shrink it in the washer as an initial step before taking it to a tailor.
Fabric Shrinkage Control
Shrinkage control is the factor that should be a priority for manufacturers. The shrinkage of fabric can be prevented by appropriate knitted manufacturing. High moisture content also increases the rate of shrinkage.
High-quality softeners should be making the fabric resistant to shrinkage. The fabric must be passed through various methods during manufacturing to prevent shrinkage after sewing.
There is a method to treat fabric shrinkage. Although, this method does not prevent the fabric from initial shrinkage but removes shrinkage after initial shrinkage.
Thermoplasticity is the method in which the shrinkage fiber is stretched into its original state and is cooled after the reaction of hot steam. This process will mold the fiber into its original state.
Material Shrinkage Calculation
The shrinkage factor is dependent on the chemical composition and properties of the material. As plastic shrinkage factor is based on the thermal conditions and its molded structure.
Similarly, the absorption capacity of fabric is the primary factor of fabric shrinkage. While fabric structure, temperature, processing tension, and weaving fabric tightness are considered as secondary factors of fabric shrinkage.
All these factors allow expansion and relaxation within the fabric which causes shrinkage. Another factor is the raw materials that are used in knitting the fabric.
The raw material with less shrinkage capacity is used in synthetic fibers and more shrinkage capacity is that of viscose fiber.
Methods For Calculation Of Fabric Shrinkage
There are many methods for determining the shrinkage of fabric. The fabric shrinkage testers are in a wide range. But the most reliable fabric shrinkage test method for determining the shrinkage is preparing the sample for the test.
The two most widely used methods for are AATCC test method 135 which is also called dimensional changes of fabric and AATCC 150 after home laundering.
These methods involve the use of a home machine to wet off the fabric. Agitate the fabric for five minutes in the machine. The actual shrinkage of fabric occurs as the fabric undergoes the mechanical action in a tumble dryer.
For best and authentic results wash and dry the fabric for three cycles. Regular laundry detergents are used along with marker and balanced cloth. Three samples must be taken for effective results. Determine the width and length of the samples.
To shrink the fabric the washing and drying conditions must be noted properly along with the type of detergent that is used for each sample.
Linen and woven fabrics should be treated differently. Remove the samples from your dryer and hung them properly. The next step is to measure the change in the length and width of the sample.
As the lengths and widths are determined before and after shrinkage. The difference in values before and after shrinkage helps in calculating the actual fabric shrinkage.
The results are multiplying by a hundred which gives the actual percentage of fabric shrinkage. Fabric shrinkage testing help the manufacturer in improving the quality of their fabric.
Fabric Shrinkage Rates
There are different fabric shrinkage rates that can be determined by using different textile test methods that calculate fabric shrinkage standards.
Following below is a list of the most recognized international organizations that provide fabric shrinkage tests and the most popular textile test methods used to calculate shrinkage rate on fabrics.
Fabric shrinkage test procedures are based on the Dimensional change of the fabric that it undergoes during washing.
These involve laundering a sample of fabric following a specific procedure and measuring the lengths and widths.
AATCC Test Method 135 involves the laundering of sample fabric thrice and values are measured and compared before and after laundering.
While AATCC Test Method 150 determines the shrinkage rate of the fabric after home laundering. The fabric shrinkage percentage is determined by the length of fabric before and after laundering and looking at the fabric shrinkage percentage calculation.
If shrinkage % is less than 2-3 %, it is acceptable by consumers but there are chances of its rejection if it is more than 3%.
Fabric Shrinkage Formula
To calculate fabric shrinkage for any given fabric let's follow fabric shrinkage formula 3 simple steps below and record your before wash and after wast measurements to determine your total fabric shrinkage for width and length.
Cut a square of fabric from a roll and draw a square 18"x18" on the fabric. Make sure you are using a fabric marker and that your square is at least 2" away from salvage.
Measure Square Before Wash
18"x18" square block before shrinking
Lengthwise measurement =18"
Widthwise measurement = 18"
Wash your fabric sample following your standard washing method to find the shrinkage percentage to washing then let dry. Measure square after wash.
18"x18" square block after shrinking results
Lengthwise measurement =17"
Widthwise measurement = 15"
Apply Fabric Shrinkage Formula:
[Width of the square block before shrinking] - [width of the square block after shrinking] / width of the square block before shrinking x 100
Lengthwise total shrinkage percent Formula: [(18 - 17) / 18] x 100 = 5.55% = 6%
Widthwise total shrinkage percent Formula: [(18 - 15) / 18] x 100 = 16.66% = 17%
About Alejandro Esparza
Alejandro Esparza is the Co-Founder of smartpatternmaking.com. He is a Fashion Designer/ Professional Pattern Maker/ Technical Designer/ Startup Advisor and acknowledged in the garment industry as authority in pattern making and pattern design process. He has the ability to work with small entrepreneurial companies’ private label customers and large organizations. He has over 25 years of apparel garment industry experience and is a sought after adviser for many top fashion brands of today.
Fabric Shrinkage Frequently Asked Questions
What Patterns Need shrinkage Applied? Any pattern that is cut on a fabric that contains Natural fibers—such as Cotton, Linen, Silk, Denim, Corduroy, Flannels and any other fabrics containing natural Cotton fibers will need to have a pattern with shrinkage added as these fabrics are more susceptible to the shrinkage process than synthetics.
What is Selvedge? The selvage (sometimes spelled selvage) is the tightly woven edge of your fabric which is cut off to prevent it from appearing on your sewn pieces on your design. The term 'usable width of fabric', means the width of your fabric minus its selvages.
What wash process shrinks fabric? Any [Wet Wash Process/Chemical Process] will shrink the fabric. So prior to cutting fabric for bulk production, you must check its shrinkage percentage in washing.
What file format should I upload so you can apply shrinkage?
You can upload Gerber ZIP files or DXF/AAMA files.
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